Annual Editions Race and Ethnic Relations - Race and Ethnic Relations 16e.pdf

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Race and Ethnic
Sixteenth Edition
John A. Kromkowski
Catholic University of America
John A. Kromkowski is president of The National Center for Urban Ethnic Affairs
in Washington, D.C., a nonprofit research, technical assistance, and educational
institute that has sponsored programs and projects and published many books and
articles on ethnic relations, urban affairs, and economic revitalization. He is also
undergraduate coordinator in the Department of Politics at the Catholic University of
America. Dr. Kromkowski coordinates international seminars and internship pro-
grams in the United States, England, Ireland, and Belgium and a series of scholarly
institutes and a multivolume collection sponsored by the Council for Research in
Values and Philosophy titled Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Change. He has
served on national boards for the Baroni Institute, One American Foundation, Cam-
paign for Human Development, U.S. Department of Education Ethnic Heritage Stud-
ies Program, White House Fellows Program, National Neighborhood Coalition, and
American Revolution Bicentennial Administration.
2460 Kerper Blvd., Dubuque, IA 52003
Visit us on the Internet
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1. Local Experiences of Racial and Ethnic Identity, Communities, and Diversity in America
Unit photo—CORBIS/Picture Quest
2. Echoes from the Past and Pieces of Our Ambiguous Legacies
Unit photo—Library of Congress
3. Demography and Diversity
Unit photo—The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./John Flournoy, photographer
4. Immigration and the American Tradition
Unit photo—The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./John Flournoy, photographer
5. Indigenous Ethnic Groups
Unit photo—Rubberball Productions/Getty Images
6. African Americans
Unit photo—Getty Images/SW Productions
7. Hispanic/Latina/o Americans
Unit photo—Jess Alford/Getty Images
8. Asian Americans
Unit photo—C. Borland/PhotoLink/Getty Images
9. Eastern European and Mediterranean Ethnics
Unit photo—Skip Nall/Getty Images
10. Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations: Exploring Challenges
Unit photo—Adam Crowley/Getty Images
Cataloging in Publication Data
Main entry under title: Annual Editions: Race and Ethnic Relations. 16/e. 2007/2008.
1. Race and Ethnic Relations—Periodicals. I. Kromkowski, John A., comp. II. Title: Race and Ethnic Relations.
ISBN 13: 978–0–07–339745–0
MHID 10: 0–07–339745–8
658’.05 ISSN 1075–5195
© 2008 by McGraw-Hill Contemporary Learning Series, Dubuque, IA 52001, A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Copyright law prohibits the reproduction, storage, or transmission in any form by any means of any portion
of this publication without the express written permission of McGraw-Hill Contemporary Learning Series,
and of the copyright holder (if different) of the part of the publication to be reproduced. The Guidelines for
Classroom Copying endorsed by Congress explicitly state that unauthorized copying may not be used to create,
to replace, or to substitute for anthologies, compilations, or collective works. Inquiries concerning publishing rights
to the articles herein can be directed to the Permission Department at Contemporary Learning Series. 800.243.6532
Annual Editions ® is a Registered Trademark of McGraw-Hill Contemporary Learning Series,
A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Sixteenth Edition
Cover image Ryan McVay/Getty Images
Compositor: Laserwords Private Limited
Printed in the United States of America
Printed on Recycled Paper
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Editors/Advisory Board
Members of the Advisory Board are instrumental in the final selection of articles for each edition of ANNUAL EDITIONS. Their review
of articles for content, level, currentness, and appropriateness provides critical direction to the editor and staff. We think that you will
find their careful consideration well reflected in this volume.
John A. Kromkowski
Catholic University of America
Henry Lee Allen
Wheaton College
Alan B. Anderson
University of Saskatchewan
James M. Calderone
College Misericordia
Ellis Cashmore
Staffordshire University
Phillip T. Gay
San Diego State University
Cecil Hale
City College of San Francisco
Perry A. Hall
University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
Vicki L. Hesli
University of Iowa
Mary R. Holley
Montclair State University
Paul Kriese
Indiana University East
Linda Moghadan
University of Maryland, College Park
Tyrone Powers
Anne Arundel Community College
Edward Rhymes
University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth
Mitchell F. Rice
Texas A & M University
Dennis M. Rome
University of Wisconsin - Parkside
Thomas V. Tonnesen
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Harriet Tramer
Cleveland State University
Larry Loeppke, Managing Editor
David Welsh, Developmental Editor
Jade Benedict, Developmental Editor
Joe Offredi, Developmental Editor
Nancy Meissner, Editorial Assistant
Rita Hingtgen, Production Service Assistant
Lenny J. Behnke, Permissions Coordinator
Lori Church, Permissions Coordinator
Shirley Lanners, Permissions Coordinator
Beth Kundert, Production Manager
Karen Spring, Senior Administrative Assistant
Jane Mohr, Project Manager
Jean Smith, Project Manager
Sandy Wille, Project Manager
Tara McDermott, Design Specialist
Maggie Lytle, Cover Designer
Julie Keck, Senior Marketing Manager
Mary Klein, Marketing Communications Specialist
Alice Link, Marketing Coordinator
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In publishing ANNUAL EDITIONS we recognize the enormous role played by the magazines, newspapers, and journals of the public press in
providing current, first-rate educational information in a broad spectrum of interest areas. Many of these articles are appropriate for students,
researchers, and professionals seeking accurate, current material to help bridge the gap between principles and theories and the real world.
These articles, however, become more useful for study when those of lasting value are carefully collected, organized, indexed, and reproduced
in a low-cost format, which provides easy and permanent access when the material is needed. That is the role played by ANNUAL EDITIONS.
T he explosion of journalistic accounts, the growing
legitimacy of ethnicity and race as salient—if not significant—
factors related to economic globalization, and the super-
power status of the United States of America all engage our
attention toward and understanding of race and ethnicity.
Experiences of race and ethnicity are aspects of personal
identity sustained by societies, governmental policies, eco-
nomics, and religion, as well as the historical narratives of
meaning; all of which are embedded in the mentalities that
influence personal and group identity. The reader is invited
to observe race and ethnicity in the United States; and to
discern the development of regimes that have been applied
to this socially and economically mobile and culturally plural-
istic and immigrant-receiving country.
Nearly a hundred years after the U.S. Supreme Court
declared the civil rights laws passed by Congress after
the ‘War Between the States’ unconstitutional, the Court
addressed the issues again in 1954 in Brown v. Topeka
Board of Education. A decade later, in the mid-1960s, Con-
gress stepped up to the plate and passed civil and voting
rights laws and immigration reform by the mid-1960s. The
universal proclamation of the America Dream found new
vigor, but engaged new challenges of pluralism and diver-
sity. Though related to personal/individual rights, cultural
rights are clearly associated with a group’s participation and
its respected access to its part within the public and social
affairs. Given its size—and the historical legacy of slavery,
conquest, and immigration—the contemporary reality of
the United States remains rooted in the legacies of many
cultures and the ongoing drama of evocations of race and
ethnicity oscillate between celebrative proclamations and
lamentations and outrages based on experiences of oppres-
sion and unfairness. Such is the destiny of a large society
comprised of many cultures and the negotiation of boundar-
ies among groups in a political order committed to personal
liberties and civil rights. Thus the issue and realities of racial
and ethnic diversity are patiently real and woven into the very
nature of the country. Beyond the personal claims of liberties
and rights stand other questions: How well are we negoti-
ating relations among and between groups? How well are
we shaping and sharing the burdens and benefits of social
change and economic affluences? How we make such social
choices determines the character of our common life.
This collection was designed to assist you in under-
standing ethnic and racial pluralism in the United States in
a global age. Unit 1, acquaints the reader with case-studies
that are illustrative of the contemporary scene at the micro
levels. Each fine grain case-study reveals the specificity
and particularity of race and ethnic intersections. Unit 2
addresses the specific historical characteristics of diversity
and delineates significant features of American-diversity
related to slavery and color consciousness and immigration.
The ongoing, yet changing impacts and characteristics of
a new American demography are broached in Unit 3. The
historical and contemporary experiences of immigration are
covered in Unit 4.
The uniquely American expressions of indigenous
groups in this modern society are reviewed in Unit 5. Very
large and historically marginated populations are treated in
the selections found in Unit 6 and Unit 7, which focus respec-
tively on African Americans and Hispanic/Latino Americans.
Unit 8 explores various dimensions of the Asian
American experience. Unit 9 extends the discussion of eth-
nic identity to Americans of Eastern European and Mediter-
ranean background and offers comparative perceptions and
perspectives of ethnic Americans on contemporary issues.
Selections in Unit 10 illustrate how the most basic legal prin-
ciples of a society, and especially the U.S. Congress and
Supreme Court’s interpretation of them, are significant for
the delineation of race and ethnic relations. The intersec-
tion of the aspirations for inclusion and the realities of eco-
nomic, gender, and racial claims reveal a pattern of cultural
pluralism and contemporary challenges to the promise of
American liberties. This unit presents selections of articles
that address approaches to understanding the origins of
racialism and strife. It focuses on the religious and ethnic ori-
gins that shape the consciousness of group affinities and give
rise to political and governmental mobilizations of regimes.
In addition to the annotated table of contents, this edi-
tion of Annual Editions: Race and Ethnic Relations contains
a list of Internet References that can be used to further
explore article topics and a Topic Guide to reference articles
by subject. Readers may have input into the next edition of
Annual Editions: Race and Ethnic Relations by completing
and returning the prepaid article rating form in the back of
the book. Thank you.
John A. Kromkowski
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Topic Guide
Internet References
Local Experiences of Racial and Ethnic Identity,
Communities, and Diversity in America
Unit Overview
1. Ethnic Goes Exurban, Tyler Cowen, The Washington Post, September 3, 2006
Ty ler Cowen’s account opens a wide angle vista onto the migration of ethnic restaurants in
Northern Virginia, and settlement patterns and practices related to ethnic food in the Wash-
ington metropolitan area.
2. It’s Blarney Meets Chutzpah, over Red Wine and Green Beer, Jennifer
Medina, The New York Times, March 17, 2003
The convergence on the same night of two religious holidays— Saint Patrick’s Day and
Purim —brings together Catholics and Jews in New York City to celebrate.
3. A Shift in the Income Divide in Queens Puts Blacks Ahead of Whites,
Sam Roberts, The New York Times, October 1, 2006
This neighborhood profile by Sam Roberts reveals income and housing settlement varieties of
African Americans, and challenges stereotypical notions.
4. ‘New Brooklyns’ Replace White Suburbs, Rick Hampson, USA Today,
May 19, 2003
Rick Hampson’s new metaphor found in his report on recent census data and the migration
from cities to suburbs reveals the ongoing shift of urban ethnicities and the formation of
new patterns of residential and migrant-group interaction as the metropolitization of America
enters its fifth decade.
5. Parishes in Transition, Jessica Trobaugh Temple and Erin Blasko, South
Bend Tribune, May 8, 2003
These local accounts of Hispanic, Hungarian, and Polish communities reveal the transition
experienced by ethnic Catholic parishes in an older industrial city of the Midwest.
6. In New York, Gospel Resounds in African Tongues, Daniel J. Wakin, The
New York Times, April 18, 2004
Daniel Wakin’s account of a new African immigrant spirituality reveals the changing
patterns of religion and cultural differentiation related to recent immigrant experiences within
the larger demographic category of African-Americans.
7. In Brooklyn, an Evolving Ethnicity, Delizia Flaccavento, Ambassador,
National Italian American Foundation, Summer 2006
This profile of the streets of Bensonhurst recounts efforts by the Federation of Italian-
American Organizations toward the recultivation of neighborhood-based ethnicity that flour-
ished in this original ethnic enclave.
8. Mélange Cities, Blair A. Ruble, The Wilson Quarterly, Summer 2006
Blair A. Ruble’s essay on the expansion of ethnically pluralistic cities documents the significant
transformation of the Washington Metropolitan area.
9. Greektown’s Rise No Myth, Antero Pietila, Baltimore Sun, June 22, 2004
Pietila’s report on recent efforts of the Greek-American experience in Baltimore, the formation
of a new mechanism such as the Community Development Corporation, and the struggle
for resurgence of place and ethnic style are emblematic of positive urban initiatives at the
crucial intersections of culture, commerce, and housing.
The concepts in bold italics are developed in the article. For further expansion, please refer to the Topic Guide and the Index.
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